I have a Samsung SSD on a tower. I would install Linux, and it would not allow me to use a large 40 4K TV as a monitor. It would work with Windows Pro, which was because the SSD has its own wrinkles.
I suspect your problem is less the way you did the install the SSD. If you can get into BIOS/EFI then you might find some way to change the delay of the boot, and it would work. I know that when I had several spinning hard drives, the Timing at boot changed and the thing began to behave. And no it does not make any sense. You might add an external hard drive, which might slow the boot sequence down so it begins to work long enough to poke around and make changes. Might try to boot Linux from a Flash Drive to see if everything else looks all right.