Click the link below to watch the video on installing Windows 10 using the USB Key.
Download Drivers from the link below. Choose your system and OS
Which specific model (i.e., Inspiron 3168, etc.)? Was this a warranty replacement of the drive (in which case it should have come pre-imaged)?
Where did the install media come from? Did you have a backup from the original system made with the Dell backup utility, or did you download the ISO from Microsoft and use the media creation tool to prepare the flash drive? Are you installing Windows 10-64 bit on the system?
Again -- what model is this (Insprion 3168, 3142, etc.)?
Checklist for setup:
Legacy mode OFF
Secure boot ON.
I have a suspicion there's more wrong with the system than just the hard drive, but the answers to those questions plus the settings checklist is a start.
It's beginning to sound like your replacement drive is bad - that it has bad sectors on it. That would explain the failure to boot from the factory image AND it would explain the current problems.
Press F12 at powerup, boot to the Dell diagnostics and run an extended (not just quick - this will take a few hours) test on the drive.
My suspicion is that you'll find the drive has bad sectors on it.