I do not think that this is an actual hardware failure. Moving this to the Windows 10 board to get their opinions.
" The machine was on AC power".
A power surge could be the culprit of the hard drive problem. Is the AC adapter connected to a wall outlet or (cheap) Power Surge Protector? If yes, I'd suggest you purchase a Power Surge Protector that can handle any type of power surge.
Forget the surge protector. It only gets recommended when one has no idea what it does and what that anomaly is. Potentially destructive surges occur maybe once every seven years. It does not cause an intermittent device crash. It destroys hardware.
Furthermore that protector on 120 volts will do nothing until voltage well exceed 330 volts. How many other household appliances are being damaged by a well over 330 volt transient? Move on to real world analysis.
Drive or associate hardware is definitely failing intermittently. It is not a software problem. But this is the nature of an intermittent. That defect exists constantly. But only causes failures intermittently. That is what diagnostics are for and why Dell provides comprehensive hardware diagnostics for all internal components. (Other manufacturers have them but will not provide them).
Another diagnostic tool is heat. Heat does not create damage. Heat can make a constantly defective part temporarily act defective constantly. Best is to operate that computer in a 100 degree F room. Or use a hairdryer on highest heat to selectively heat components. Then execute that comprehensive diagnostic. If some interface chip, cable, or disk drive is defective, this is your best option for identifying it.
I decided to run the full diagnostic test. The test determined that my hard drive needs to be replaced under warranty. I guess this case is closed!