RE: Dell TB16 - Latitude 7370 various issues
Interesting solution here! For what it's worth, it looks like a new version of the ASMedia USB driver was released just today, citing compatibility improvements with the Win10 Creators Update, although there may of course be other fixes that Dell didn't bother to mention.
With the benefit of hindsight now that the culprit has been identified, I suppose it makes sense. Citrix Receiver adds USB filter drivers to allow redirecting locally attached USB devices to the remote server hosting the application being streamed (e.g. to use a local headset with a remotely hosted IP softphone app), so I can definitely see how that could interfere with USB functionality.
Out of curiosity, have you tried installing Citrix Receiver now that you've gotten the ASMedia driver updated? If so, is everything still stable or is it not possible to have Citrix Receiver and a stable dock connection at the same time? Although if I'm reading the post marked as an answer correctly, it seems the new version of Citrix Receiver resolves this issue? Unless that post was referring to updating to the latest version of the ASMedia driver?