VMware uses Storage Replication Adapters, or plugins that specifically can handle using storage-based replication to secure the virtual machines, and handle the failover.
When looking at Hyper-V, the only materials that I could find were these:
Look at page 38 of this guide:
Which basically makes it sound like Hyper-V Replica handles the replication on a per-guest/VHD basis. Alternatively you might want to look at Veeam or Zerto for VM-level recovery, but still it's not storage-level replication.
You could also look at EMC Storage Integrator (ESI):
I'm not saying that using storage-level replication won't work. Maybe it will, but I can't find anything that specifically says it will, or that seems to make it easy like it is with VMware.