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April 2nd, 2020 19:00

Demystifying Thunderbolt 3 Security Levels

Since Thunderbolt 3 presents some unique security considerations, and there are now several different “security levels” for a system's Thunderbolt 3 controller that can be configured in the system’s BIOS setup, I thought I’d write an explainer for anyone who might be confused about or simply interested in the differences.

Key Technical Background

First, it’s important to understand that a USB-C port that supports Thunderbolt 3 can carry different types of data traffic, since this will be relevant to what will or will not work under various security modes and why.

  • USB 2.0 – USB-C connectors contain dedicated pins for USB 2.0 traffic.

  • USB 3.x – Support for USB 3.x is technically optional, but when available, a USB 3.x device plugged into a USB-C port would use two of the four “high speed lanes” in a USB-C connector.  The other two remain unused, at least as of USB 3.x Gen 1 and Gen 2 (5 Gbps and 10 Gbps, respectively.)

  • DisplayPort – Support for DisplayPort over USB-C, technically referred to as “DisplayPort Alt Mode”, is also optional on USB-C ports, but is mandatory on all USB-C ports that support Thunderbolt 3. DisplayPort can be run either within a Thunderbolt signal or as regular DisplayPort traffic, and it also uses the high speed lanes in a USB-C connector. When using something like a USB-C to DisplayPort cable, all four lanes would carry video. When using something like a USB-C dock that wished to support video and USB 3.x data, only two lanes would carry video since the other two would be allocated to USB 3.x – and consequently you’d have half the video bandwidth available compared to the USB-C to DP cable scenario. In a Thunderbolt connection, DisplayPort would be multiplexed with PCIe, more detail below.

  • PCIe – This is only available on USB-C ports that support Thunderbolt 3 and when running in Thunderbolt 3 mode. PCIe support is mandatory for Thunderbolt 3 – at least a PCIe x2 interface, with a PCIe x4 interface being optional in the spec. Note that when Thunderbolt is in use, all four high speed lanes in the USB-C connector are tasked with carrying a "Thunderbolt signal", which consists of PCIe and DisplayPort multiplexed together. This means Thunderbolt makes efficient use of available total bandwidth since the PCIe/DisplayPort composition of the Thunderbolt signal can be adjusted dynamically. This is in contrast to using regular USB-C for both DisplayPort and USB 3.x simultaneously, where each signal type is allocated two lanes, regardless of how much bandwidth they need at any given time. The upcoming USB4 spec will switch to a dynamic bandwidth allocation model like Thunderbolt.

Important: When a Thunderbolt 3 port is actually running in Thunderbolt mode rather than as a basic USB port or DisplayPort video output, the only data types that are running across the Thunderbolt link are DisplayPort and PCIe.  USB 3.x is not natively carried.  If you’re connected to a Thunderbolt 3 dock that offers USB 3.x ports, the dock contains a PCIe-based USB controller, meaning that USB traffic is PCIe along the Thunderbolt link. This would be just like having a desktop PC and installing a USB expansion card into a PCI Express slot on the motherboard.  The Thunderbolt link is exactly equivalent to the PCIe segment of that data path in the desktop scenario. Typically other dock devices, such as Ethernet controllers and audio ports, would also run through the USB controller within the dock. This will matter later.

Thunderbolt 3 Security Levels

No Security (SL0) – You can connect any Thunderbolt 3 device and it will immediately start working. The danger to this mode is that since Thunderbolt 3 supports PCIe, and PCIe allows direct access to system memory, a malicious Thunderbolt 3 device could access potentially sensitive data in your system’s memory, and in SL0 mode, the device would simply need to be plugged in to do so. The typical threat model here would involve an attacker doing this while you had left your system unattended somewhere. This may not be a practical risk for everyone, but it's why the higher security levels exist.

User Authorization (SL1) – When a Thunderbolt 3 device is connected, the user must respond to a popup dialog box to explicitly allow the connection. The user can choose to allow once or to always allow that particular device. This mitigates the SL0 risk described above.

Secure Connection (SL2) – Same as SL1 except that if the user chooses to always allow a particular device, the system writes a cryptographic key to that device and also records it in its own firmware in order to perform a more robust "identity verification" of that device on subsequent connections, using a challenge/response mechanism. This prevents an attacker from taking the Device ID of a peripheral that had been granted "always allow" access and cloning it onto a malicious device, which under SL1 mode would allow that malicious device to gain "always allow" access. However, not all Thunderbolt 3 peripherals support SL2.

DisplayPort and USB only (SL3) – DisplayPort traffic is allowed over Thunderbolt 3, but PCIe is not. This is still different from a regular USB-C DisplayPort connection because an actual Thunderbolt link is still established, which means that if the Thunderbolt controller has two DisplayPort interfaces wired to it from the system's GPU (which is optional in the Thunderbolt spec), they would both be available, thereby offering more display bandwidth than a regular USB-C DisplayPort connection where at most one full DisplayPort interface of bandwidth is available. But the “USB” portion of this security level is where it gets tricky. If you plug a garden variety USB 3.x device or a regular USB-C dock (i.e. non-Thunderbolt dock) into your Thunderbolt 3 port, it will work as normal, since that scenario doesn’t involve an actual Thunderbolt link. However, as mentioned in the “Important" note above, USB 3.x is not natively carried over an actual Thunderbolt 3 link. This means that if your system is set to SL3 and you connect to an actual Thunderbolt 3 dock, you will get video output, but you will NOT be able to use any USB 3.x ports or other dock functionality that runs through the dock's USB controller, which is typically all other ports (Ethernet, audio, etc.).  The reason is that all of that would have to use PCIe between the dock and the system, and SL3 blocks PCIe. The only USB functionality you could potentially get from a Thunderbolt dock would be anything that runs as USB 2.0, since as mentioned earlier, a USB-C connector contains dedicated pins for USB 2.0, and that traffic runs completely independently of Thunderbolt.  However, even USB 2.0 devices connected to the dock's USB ports and internal dock devices that run on USB 2.0 (possibly the dock's audio controller) would still typically run through the dock's own PCIe-based USB controller rather than being passed straight through to the attached system as native USB 2.0.

Daisy chaining disabled / USB docks only (SL4) – This mode refers to Thunderbolt daisy chaining, not DisplayPort daisy chaining. In this mode, PCIe is allowed, but only for the first Thunderbolt 3 device in the chain. Thunderbolt devices farther down the chain would not be allowed to use PCIe – so for example if you had a Thunderbolt 3 eGPU enclosure plugged into an “upstream” Thunderbolt port on your Thunderbolt 3 dock, and you connected that dock to your system while it was set to SL4, the dock would be allowed and fully functional, but the eGPU would be blocked. This mode is designed to prevent a malicious Thunderbolt peripheral from gaining access to your system through a trusted device such as a dock.

Kernel DMA Protection – This mode requires support from the system firmware, OS, drivers, and Thunderbolt 3 peripheral, and it's meant to allow Thunderbolt 3 to operate at full functionality in a secure fashion without requiring user approvals. Again, the normal risk with Thunderbolt 3 is that it makes PCIe available, which in turn allows peripherals to gain direct access to system memory. Kernel DMA Protection allows the system to grant the peripheral direct access only to an assigned portion of system memory, thereby mitigating the risk. So when all of the components mentioned above support Kernel DMA Protection, a Thunderbolt peripheral starts working as soon as it’s plugged in, even if it wants to use PCIe, with no user consent required. When the system supports Kernel DMA Protection but the specific Thunderbolt peripheral being connected doesn’t support it, the system falls back to one of the “legacy” security levels above for that particular device connection, typically SL1.  SL0 would technically be possible but would be a security risk. Fallback to SL2 is not supported, at least currently.  I doubt SL3 fallback would work since that wouldn’t allow PCIe at all, and I’m not sure whether SL4 fallback is available. It might vary from system to system.

Hopefully this is helpful or at least interesting to someone!

24 Posts

March 10th, 2021 00:00

My BIOS was set to "User Authorization" by default but I never got any kind of popup when connecting a USB device.

Device: Dell G5 15 laptop

Port: Thunderbolt 3 (USB 3.1 Gen 2 Type-C)/DisplayPort

OS: Windows 10 Pro 1909


4 Operator


14K Posts

March 10th, 2021 05:00

@Beefesoft  The Thunderbolt security levels only apply to Thunderbolt, and therefore only come into play when connecting Thunderbolt devices.  They do not apply when connecting a USB device to a port that is capable of Thunderbolt.  That's why the User Authorization description began, "When a Thunderbolt 3 device is connected...."  The reason the security levels were introduced is because Thunderbolt allows access to PCIe, which poses unique security considerations that don't apply to standard USB.

10 Posts

April 21st, 2021 01:00

@jphughan Wow, thanks a lot for those detailed explanations! It begins to be more and more clear, how those single wires of the Thunderbolt connection are ticking internally now...

Nevertheless, what I still don't understand is, why I was never asked about an approval, for neither my first docking station (WD19) nor for the second one (WD19TB) when I connected them the first time. They have been definitely not just recognised as USB devices, have they?

Does this maybe also relay to the fact, that the Thunderbolt Center App is still missing on my device? (And also here again, where to get this Thunderbolt Center from at the moment? It's definitely NOT available from the Microsoft store at the moment. Does someone knows about it?)

4 Operator


14K Posts

April 21st, 2021 06:00

@Edimahler  Glad you found it useful! The WD19 is a regular USB-C dock, not a Thunderbolt dock, so you wouldn’t ever need approval there. And the WD19TB supports Kernel DMA Protection, which means if your system does as well, you don’t need approval either.

6 Posts

November 29th, 2022 04:00

I have nothing to add here other than a huge THANK YOU for writing this up. It's not far off 3 years since you wrote it and it's still relevant and useful. I'm having lots of issues with a Lenovo Thunderbolt Dock and this has helped me a lot.

4 Operator


14K Posts

November 30th, 2022 19:00

@pauby  Thanks so much for the kind words! It’s always nice to hear that something continues to be helpful even beyond the original intended audience. Good luck with your Lenovo dock troubleshooting! I actually have a Lenovo Thunderbolt 3 Dock Gen 2 (model 40AN), and there have been some wonky firmware releases that broke things like display daisy chaining, and when I got an iPad Pro that had Thunderbolt, I tried connecting it to the dock just for fun. it didn’t work initially, but it did after a firmware update.

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